Gods and Goddesses: Plant Associations

Gods and plants go together like milk and cookies. This may seem strange for some, but there are those who understand how the gods came to be in the minds of the ancient people. The mighty gods and goddesses arose from animistic beliefs (the belief that all things have a soul or consciousness), which included trees and plants. There were certain places in nature that were considered sacred and so were guarded by nature spirits. These nature spirits came to be deified and passed down through mythology as gods and goddesses. So we can see how plants and trees might be very closely associated with gods and goddesses.

For pagans who want a quick reference to multiple gods and goddesses and their plant associations, I have developed an A-Z reference list. This list is broken up by gods and goddesses, and then alphabetically arranged. The deities are not categorized by culture or origin. Knowing plants associated with your god and goddess will help you learn more about that deity, as well as gives you an idea of offerings.

This list can also be used as a reference for writers, historians, folklorists, mythologists, etc. If you have a god or goddess that isn’t included and you’d like plant associations added to the list, please leave a comment at the end.

Goddesses and Their Plant Associations

Aphrodite – apples, linden tree, myrtle tree, pomegranate, poppies, prickly lettuce, roses, star of bethlehem

Artemis – artemisia (mugwort, southernwood, tarragon, wormwood), bay laurel, cedar, chase tree, fir, myrtle, oak, walnut, wild fig, willow

Astarte – alder, arabic gum, cypress, juniper, myrtle, pine

Athena – cinnamon, citrus, cedar, cypress, dragon’s blood, geranium, hellebore, oak, olive, patchouli

Arianrhod – ivy

Baba Yaga – black sunflowers, medicinal herbs, poppies, rye, tobacco

Bast (Bastet) – catnip

Berchta – birch, evergreens, flax, wild berries

Blodeuwedd – broom, meadowsweet, and oak

Brighid – blackberries, oak, rushes

Cerridwen – corn

Circe – Alder, juniper, mandrake, nightshade

Demeter – barley, chaste tree, fig, oak, mint, poppies, pomegranate, pennyroyal, wheat

Diana – apple, grain, oak

Freya – apples, barley, flowers

Hathor – blue lotus

Hecate – asphodel, black poplar, date palm, garlic, henna, lavender, mandrake, medicinal herbs (various), pomegranate

Hel – beech, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, willow, yew

Hera – chaste tree

Hestia – Angel’s trumpet (Datura), California poppy, chaste tree, goldenrod, hollyhock, purple coneflower, and yarrow

Holda – flax

Iris – iris

Isis – flowers, myrrh, sycomore fig, vervain

Kali – red hibiscus, red rhododendron, poinsettia

Kuan Yin – lotus, oolong tea leaves, orange, pomegranate, willow

Ma’at – papyrus

Medea – aconite, hemlock, nightshade

Morgan Le Fay – apple, blackthorn, herbs, lily of the valley, oak, willow

The Morrigan – blackthorn, Belladonna, Juniper berries, Nightshade, Dragon’s blood, Mugwart, Yew

Nerthus – beech, blackthorn, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, thistle, willow, yew

Oya – anise, aspen, cinnamon, carnation, calamus, clove, dragon’s blood, dittany of crete, hibiscus, lemon, myrrh, nutmeg, oak moss, star anise, sandalwood, tangerine

Persephone – asphodel, crocus, iris, larkspur, lily, pomegranate

Rhiannon – bayberry, cedar, daffodils, forsythia, leeks, pansies, pine, rosemary and sage

White Buffalo Woman – tobacco

Gods and Their Plant Associations

Aries – ash

Baron Samedi – Tobacco, Sugar Cane

Buddha – rice, lotus

Cernunnos – oak, ivy, grain

Dagda – grains, oats

Dionysus – bindweed, elm, fennel, fig, fir, grapes, ivy, walnut

Elegba – Bitter melon

Hades – asphodel, elm

Hermes – crocus

Jesus – aspen, cedar, grapes, oak, olive, palm

Jupiter – acorn, agrimony, almond, aloe, aspen, beech, cassia, carnation, cedar, cypress, daisy, fig, gorse, hyssop, leek, mullein, oak, olive, orange, palm, pine, sage, vervain, violate

Krishna – acacia, bay, frankincense, vine

Loki – beech, blackthorn, elder, elm, ivy, juniper, mullein, thistle, willow, yew

Mabon – apple, berries, grains

Manannan Mac Lir – aquatic plants, seaweed

Mars – bay laurel, dogwood, fig, oak

Odin – amanita muscaria, elecampane, juniper, monkshood, Wotan’s Herb

Osiris – acacia, benzoin, cedar, clove, dittany of crete, grains, ivy, orris, palm date, tamarisk, vine, willow

Pan – grapes, pine, reeds

Poseidon – aquatic plants, kelp, seaweeds, wild celery

Ra – acacia, bay, cinnamon, frankincense, heliotrope, myrrh, olive, sunflower, vine

Set – myrrh, patchouli, thistle

Thor – acorns, avens, dragon’s blood, juniper, oak, oak moss, pine, thistle

Thoth – bamboo, papyrus

Tyr – blackthorn, juniper, oak, thistle, vervain

Zeus – ash, crocus, wild celery

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