To make moon planting really simple, when the moon is a new moon, this is not the time to plant anything. However, just after you see the first crescent you can start planting as this is when there is a surge of energy through the plants and the sap begins to rise through the stems. The best zodiac signs to plant during the first quarter is when the moon is in a water sign, such as Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces.
When the moon is waxing towards the first quarter, that is when the light of the moon is increasing from a new to a full moon, this is the time to plant leafy crops, cereals, grains and other crops and flowers that produce growth above the ground. You can start to sow seeds, transplant seedlings and graft plants when the moon is waxing. When the moon is in the first quarter and is moving towards a full moon you can also plant ground crops that have inside seeds such as tomatoes, green peppers, cucumbers etc. It is also the time to plant annuals and flowers that you want to produce showy and fragrant flowers such as roses. The last two days of the first quarter, just before the full moon is considered an ideal time for grafting fruit trees. Again the best zodiac signs for sowing and planting your moon garden are during the first quarter when the moon is in a water sign, such as Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces.
When the moon is a full moon all plants are at their peak. However, over the next two weeks as the moon loses its light it also loses its energy and the moon is waning to the third quarter. This is the time to harvest your crops, your herbs, especially medicinal herbs which will be more potent if picked at this time, mushrooms, grapes and of course it is the time to prune. This is the time to plant crops and flowers that produce growth below the ground such as root crops, tubers and bulbs and for flowers, your biennials and perennials, and the perennials can be divided now too. Therefore it is time to plant onions, potatoes, carrots, swedes, turnips, beets, parsnips and radishes. It is also the time to plant trees, fruit trees and saplings towards the end of the waning period and any spraying of fruit trees should be done during this period of the moon phase. You can also plant strawberries and their runners out now and if you have any vegetables or fruit that will have to be stored for a long period of time, such as apples, potatoes, pumpkins etc. if you pick them now they won’t rot as quickly.
During the last or fourth quarter this is a barren phase for moon gardening where it more prudent to do some tidying up in your garden, pull the weeds, see to the compost heap, spread the manure and turn over the beds. Now wait for the first crescent of the new moon to plant new seeds.